Posterior vitrectomy through the planar portion of the ciliary body is microsurgical operation used in the treatment of diseases of the vitreous humour and retina.
- retinal detachment
- diabetic retinopathy
- eye ball injuries
- haemorrhages into the vitreous chamber, both epiretinal and subretinal ones
- macular holes
- epiretinal and subretinal membranes
- complications after previous ophthalmic operations.
The essence of vitrectomy
Vitrectomy is often a procedure of the last chance for vision improvement, when there is a need for immediate intervention in the retina or macula. In many ailments this is the only effective treatment method.
Vitrectomy can bring the following benefits:
- to improve or stabilise visual acuity
- to slow down or stop the disease process
- to restore the anatomy of the eye.
Course of procedures
The operation is performed under a local anaesthesia (retrobulbar injection of anaesthetic), assisted with pharmacological sedation. During the procedure, there are performed three linear entries into the eye ball wall with a length of 0.5 to 1mm, 4mm from the corneal limbus, through which there are introduced into the eye surgical instruments and substances necessary during the procedure being performed. After performing the operation, depending on its reasons, the eye ball is filled with:
- sterile fluid
- filtered air
- expanding gas, usually indicated in cases of extended tamponade – after its administration it may be necessary to stay in a forced position, e.g. with the head bowed or lying down in the manner indicated
- silicone oil.
In some cases it is necessary to remove the natural lens and to implant an artificial one, if such a procedure was not performed earlier.
Possible complications after the procedure: increased intraocular pressure, retinal detachment, inflammations, haemorrhages to the eye ball inside, progression of lens opacification.
In some most complex cases, in order to obtain a positive therapeutic effect, it is necessary to repeat the surgical procedure.